Genitourinary Cancers

In a head-to-head comparison for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, pazopanib showed similar efficacy to sunitinib but was associated with fewer side effects and an increased quality of life, according to Robert Motzer, MD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, who presented the COMPARZ trial at the European Society for Medical Oncology 2012 Congress, held in Vienna, Austria.
The use of proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer is increasing across the United States, but there is no evidence from randomized controlled trials to suggest that PBRT is more effective than intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), which is the current standard of care.

Two studies presented at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meet­ing suggested that abiraterone acetate (AA; Zytiga), an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor,1 has the potential to be used earlier in the course of prostate cancer than its current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indication (ie, after failure of chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer [CRPC]). A second interim analysis of a phase 3 trial had positive outcomes with AA in men with metastatic CRPC who had not yet received chemotherapy,1 and a preliminary phase 2 study suggested AA may have a role in the neoadjuvant setting before radical prostatectomy is performed in men with early-stage localized high-risk prostate cancer.2 In addition, secondary results from the AFFIRM trial confirmed the superiority of enzalutamide to placebo in men with CRPC following treatment with docetaxel.3

Men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer are more likely to choose active surveillance as their primary treatment if their care is managed by a multidisciplinary team, according to a recent study (Aizer AA, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3071-3076).

An investigational alpha-pharmaceutical not only prevented skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastases in a phase 3 study presented at the 2011 European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress, but it also improved overall survival. “This is the first drug targeted to bone metastases in prostate cancer to improve survival,” said lead investigator Chris Parker, MD, Royal Marsden Hospital, London. “There are other bone drugs used in prostate cancer, but they help to minimize symptoms; they don’t improve survival.

ORLANDO—Oncology pharmacists can stick with the approved dosing for sunitinib in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), according to a study by New York investigators.

ORLANDO—Interim results of a randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial showed that abiraterone acetate significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who progressed after docetaxel-based chemo - therapy. The survival benefit was consistent across all prespecified subgroups. Lead author Howard Scher, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, said abira - terone is poised to become a new standard of care during his presentation at the 2011 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium.

Urothelial (transitional) bladder carcinoma, the most common type of bladder cancer, has mutations in genes that function in chromatin remodeling, affecting the way DNA is packaged, duplicated, and processed during cell division. Gui et al from China examined this issue in a study just published online in Nature Genetics. Common chromatin remodeling genes include UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A, and CHD6.

Urothelial (transitional) bladder carcinoma, the most common type of bladder cancer, has mutations in genes that function in chromatin remodeling, affecting the way DNA is packaged, duplicated, and processed during cell division. Gui et al from China examined this issue in a study just published online in Nature Genetics. Common chromatin remodeling genes include UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A, and CHD6.

A recently developed urine test can assist in the early detection of and treatment decisions regarding prostate cancer, a study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology finds.

 

The test is designed to supplement an elevated PSA screening result. While defining those men at highest risk for clinically significant prostate cancer, the test could also delay or negate the need for a needle biopsy in some patients.

 

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