Lung Cancer

Rearrangement during transfection (RET) fusions can result in gain- or loss-of-function mutations and unchecked cellular proliferation. Although RET fusions are present in only a small percentage of cases of non–small-cell lung cancer, evidence shows they may be meaningful drug targets.
There are several oncogenic driver mutations that are actionable for treatment in cases of NSCLC. Evidence has shown that molecularly targeted approaches can result in positive outcomes for patients with NSCLC, underscoring the importance of research into biomarker testing and molecular profiling.
Four retrospective studies on treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with NSCLC have shown only limited clinical benefit in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancer.
Ongoing trials of two recently approved RET inhibitors, pralsetinib and selpercatinib, are producing encouraging safety and efficacy data in patients with RET fusion–positive NSCLC.
Although researchers have made great advances in NSCLC screening, diagnosis, and treatment, there remain several areas of unmet need, including the development of individual risk-based screening criteria, research into optimal biopsy types for molecular profiling, and greater focus on effective side-effect management plans for patients on multimedication regimens.
Updated results of the phase 3 CASPIAN clinical trial continue to show that durvalumab (Imfinzi) added to standard chemotherapy improves overall survival (OS) for patients with treatment-naïve extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC), according to a presentation at the ASCO 2020 virtual annual meeting.
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