TOP - May 2010 Vol 3, No 3
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease affec ting approximately 13,000 people in the United States each year.1 For younger adults (<60 years) standard induction treatment includes 7 days of cytarabine and 3 days of an anthracycline. Adults 60 years and older may also be treated with this regimen or a less intensive approach using outpatient chemotherapy or supportive care. The intensive chemotherapy regimens have been in use since the 1970s, with little improvement in complete re sponse (CR) rate or overall survival (OS).
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States.1 It is estimated that in 2009, 219,440 men and women were diagnosed with lung cancer and 159,390 men and women died from the disease.2 From 1975 to 2001, non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 5-year survival rates have increased from 11.9% to 15.6%. These statistics are independent of sex, race, age, and stage at diagnosis, and make acutely evident that there have been few advances in the treatment of NSCLC.
In 2000, before imatinib was marketed, it was estimated that there would be 4400 new diagnoses of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 2300 patients would die as a result of the disease in the United States.1 In 2009, the number of estimated new cases of CML increased to 5050, but the number of patients who were expected to succumb to the cancer decreased to 470 patients.2 The US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) approval of imatinib in 2001 was seen as a giant leap toward improving and prolonging the lives of patients diagnosed with CML.
Approximately 192,000 men developed prostate cancer in 2009 and 27,000 died from the disease.1 Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in North America and the second most common cause of cancer death in men. Although the number of new cases of prostate cancer has increased in the past decade, the absolute number of deaths has slowly declined.1 As the incidence of prostate cancer increases, controversies continue about the best possible methods for screening, detection, and treatment.
One in five Americans will develop skin cancer in his or her lifetime.1 More than 1 million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are estimated to go unreported each year. In 2009, more than 68,720 new cases of melanoma occurred, and melanoma caused 8650 deaths.1
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, and the fourth most common cause of death from cancer.1,2 It is estimated that in 2009, 146,970 men and women will have been diagnosed with cancer of the colon and rectum in the United States, and that 49,920 will have died from the disease.3 From 2002 to 2006 the median age of diagnosis was 71 years.3
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains common despite the availability of new antiemetic agents and the development of clinical guidelines by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Oncology.1-3 It is estimated that 70% to 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy experience CINV; approximately 10% to 44% experience anticipatory nausea and vomiting.
The evolving epidemiology statistics relative to breast cancer world wide are alarming. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer is 6.3% in developed countries compared with 1.0% in undeveloped countries. Western developed areas show increasing rates, with projections of 2 million cases diagnosed annually.
Advances in understanding of the causes of breast cancer, epidemiology, risk factors, and both maturing data and new findings on hormonal, cytotoxic, and biological approaches were presented at the 32nd annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
Multiple myeloma (MM), although currently incurable, has seen significantly improved response and overall survival (OS) rates with the inclusion of targeted therapy in its treatment schema. MM therapy has evolved greatly over the past several years and, with innovative research and medications, this disease may soon be curable. This article will focus on the novel agents revolutionizing therapy of MM.
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